Chapter 3 Fred Cohen

No historical overview of viral programs can be complete without mention of the work of Fred Cohen. Hi Fred. (Just kidding.) In the early 1980s, … [Read more...]

Chapter 4 Pranks/ Trojans

Pranks are very much a part of the computer culture. So much so, that one can now buy commercially produced joke packages which allow you to perform … [Read more...]

Chapter 5 Apple Virus

The earliest case of a virus that succeeded "in the wild" goes back to late 1981, even before the work of Fred Cohen. In fairness, this does not … [Read more...]

Chapter 6 Lehigh/ Jerusalem

The autumn of 1987 really seemed to get the ball rolling with regard to virus research. The first message to awaken interest was sent by one "LUKEN" … [Read more...]

Chapter 7 (c) Brain

The "Brain" virus is probably the earliest MS-DOS virus. At one time it was the most widespread of PC viral programs. (Yet more support for the … [Read more...]

Chapter 8 MacMag

On February 7, 1988, users of Compuserve's Hypercard Forum were greeted with an intriguing warning message. It told them that the NEWAPP.STK Hypercard … [Read more...]

Virus Protection

A virus may or may not present itself. Viruses attempt to spread before activating whatever malicious activity they may have been programmed to … [Read more...]


Once a virus has been detected, it is possible to write scanning programs that look for telltale code (signature strings) characteristic of the virus. … [Read more...]

Virus Hoaxes

Viruses, by their nature, tend to mystify the average user. They operate in the background under rules that are little understood by most users. As … [Read more...]


The simple advice is: Just Don't Do It! One "cure" for partition sector viruses suggested by people who think they know what they are doing is the … [Read more...]