How Do I Set a System Restore Point?

Note: This article shows techniques for Windows XP. It will be updated for Windows Vista soon. (For the impatient: Use the same menu options as below. The utility that pops up differs but is pretty obvious; just be certain to click on the open System Protection link and then close the utility after the System Protection tab pops up.)

Before changing your system settings you should always set a System Restore Point in order to make recovery easier in case of problems. While Windows XP will set these points automatically at various times; setting a specific point can be useful if there are things you’ve done after Windows sets its automatic point that you want to keep. Recovery to a set System Restore Point can cause data loss from that point foward as that’s the purpose of the restore point: to restore the system to a particular point in time.

To set a System Restore Point…

  • Open the Start menu
  • Open the Programs menu
  • Open the Accessories menu
  • Open the System Tools menu
  • Finally, start System Restore
  • Pick the option for setting a System Restore Point and click on the Next button
  • Fill in a name for the restore point so you can find it and click on the Create button
  • Click on the Close button when done

If you need to restore the system to a particular point or change the options Windows uses to set restore points use the System Restore tool as well.

Restore Point Video
Show Me Please

More Information

  • A good technical reference can be found on the Microsoft site [guess not, the link has been removed 🙂 ].

Comments from Original Article:

Said this on 2010-12-02 At 01:52 am
How to create auto restore point in window 2000xp

My laptop was having this feature & was able to restore back
but recently this not avilable.

Please guide

[See among other tutorials. If it’s been disabled check the system for malware. –DaBoss]

How Do I Find Visual Basic Runtimes?

Frequently a program downloaded from the internet or obtain from other sources requires a file of the form VBRUNxxx.DLL in order to run. Sometimes these files are distributed with the program; sometimes they are not. This page attempts to address that topic.

What is VBRUNxxx.DLL?

VBRUN is a short form of Visual Basic Runtime. These files come in different versions, where the version number replaces “xxx” in the file name (e.g., VBRUN100.DLL, VBRUN200.DLL, and VBRUN300.DLL are the runtime libraries for Visual Basic 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 respectively — there are more versions). These runtime Dynamic Link Libraries (this is where the DLL comes in) do nothing by themselves. They, instead, support programs written in the Visual Basic language. By placing common program elements (e.g., file and screen management code) into a single file the need to duplicate these functions in every program written in Visual Basic is eliminated.

Programs requiring one of the VBRUNxxx.DLL files will usually say so in their documentation. You need to know the exact version needed as the program will not run without it. Also, later versions do not work with programs that need an earlier version of the DLL (i.e., VBRUN300.DLL will not service requests for items in the VBRUN200.DLL file). As indicated, some programs will install the DLL for you and others won’t.

If the new program does not install the proper version of VBRUNxxx.DLL there is still a good chance you already have it on your disk. The files are supposed to be in your \WINDOWS\SYSTEM subdirectory, so look there first.

If not found there, you can do a search starting in the C:\ directory with the Search All SubDirectories option activated. If found in another directory, move the VBRUNxxx.DLL file(s) to the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory so every program can find them.

How Do You Get VBRUNxxx.DLL?

If you do not have the proper VBRUNxxx.DLL file you can download it from many different sources. A few are linked below. Different sites maintain different versions so check each if you can’t find the version you need.

Where to Install VBRUNxxx.DLL

Once you have obtained the appropriate VBRUNxxx.DLL file (unarchive if necessary) move that file into the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory on your computer. (Note: Move only the DLL file into the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory, not the archive file; programs will not recognize the archive file you downloaded, only the DLL.) Also, later versions may require the DLL file to be in the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM32 directory instead.

Once you have the VBRUNxxx.DLL file in \WINDOWS\SYSTEM you do not have to install the file again. All programs requiring this file should then find it there. (To save time, it might be useful to simply search for the VBRUNxxx.DLL files on your system now and, if not there, download and install them.)

How Do I Use My Browser for FTP?

You don’t need to have an FTP program to download files from an FTP site. Just use your Web browser.

Using a special Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or Internet address you should be able to log into most any FTP site and navigate the file tree at the site by clicking on directory listings. The general format of the URL is…


This looks imposing at first glance but, in reality is fairly simple.

First, note that the URL does not start with http:// but, instead, ftp://. This tells the browser to use its FTP routines instead of its normal Web browsing routines.

Second, note that there is a part before the host domain that tells the FTP site the login information: user:password@. These are optional but, if the site needs a login you will have to provide one at some point. If you leave out the user, the browser will assume that this is an anonymous login and use that along with whatever E-mail address you have put in your browser preferences as the password (anonymous FTP sites demand an E-mail address as the password for various tracking or notification reasons). So, if the site requires a real user login then you must provide the username at least so the browser does not attempt to log in as user anonymous. If there is a password required and you leave it out of the URL a dialog box should pop up and ask for the password as part of the connection process to the FTP site. And, remember that all of this is taking place in the open so all user names and passwords are being transmitted in clear text; not encrypted. Some versions of Internet Explorer have special ways of entering the password; see the more info link below.

After the @ sign you see host:port. This would be the domain name for the host followed by the port to be used for connection. In the vast majority of cases you can ignore the :port part as the browser assumes the standard FTP port 21 will be used for the connection and the vast majority of sites are configured that way.

Finally, if there is any special path to a particular directory that you need, it would go after the host domain name. So, a fully qualified example might look like (I certainly hope this one doesn’t work! 🙂 )…

Once you are logged into the FTP site you will generally see a directory listing. By clicking on other directories you can see what’s in them (assuming you have the right to — otherwise they will be blank or you will be asked for a password). By clicking on a file the browser should either attempt to display it (e.g., a .TXT text file will often be displayed along with any .HTML file) or ask if you want to download it. For downloading, just pick a location on your system where you want to store the file and wait for it to be completely downloaded.

More Information

Comments from Original Article:

Said this on 2011-05-03 At 07:08 pm
I have been able to make this work in Firefox. In Safari, I am only told that my user/pass is incorrect (thought it isn’t). When it works in Firefox, though, there is no way to log out. So if I want to log in as a different user, i cannot; even if I close the window.

Any ideas of what I’m doing wrong?

[The connection should break when the window closes or when you connect using a new URL with a different ID in it. Not certain why that’s not working for you. However, I would suggest that if you have lots of FTP work to do that you use an FTP client as it’s much easier and more reliable. I use FileZilla, a free client, but there are others both pay and free. –DaBoss]

Said this on 2011-05-27 At 07:55 am
Is there anyway to use this to upload files? Or a reputable web based ftp client.

[The basic technique won’t upload files but there are services such as net2ftp (as just one that comes to mind) that can be used. Just keep in mind that any web-based service will have your various passwords, etc. So, mind the privacy aspects. I prefer using FileZilla, a free ftp client (but not web-based) –DaBoss]

How do You Register/Obtain DLL or OCX Files?

Most programs use some form of library files to hold common routines used by multiple parts of the program. These files typically have the extension .DLL or .OCX and are distributed with programs that need them. Rarely, one needs to be re-registered with Windows.

When a program installs a library (DLL or OCX) file the program’s install routine will typically “register” the file with the system. This process tells the system the libraries in the file are available for more than one program to use. (Some DLL or OCX files are self-registering.)

Sometimes, if multiple programs are using a DLL or OCX file the system does not know about all of them. In this case, if you uninstall one of the programs its uninstall routine may delete the library in question not knowing that another program needs it. When this is done the library’s registration with the system no longer applies. And, if you just copy the DLL or OCX file back where it came from the system may not recognize it even if it’s in the proper place. While this is rare, when this happens you may need to “register” the library file manually.

You can find the full details about how to use the REGSVR32.EXE file at this Microsoft link… Link

The process is non-trivial so you should study the referenced page quite closely if you are going to attempt to register a library file. Indeed, it just might be easier to reinstall the application in question and let its installer take care of the registration process as part of the install.

In summary, if you choose to manually register a library file you will have to restart your computer in command prompt mode (called DOS mode in some cases). Once there, you will have to issue a command of the form…

Regsvr32 [/u] [/n] [/i[:cmdline]] dllname

It’s possible this procedure may fail in which case you may need information from the developer of the library.

I guess the bottom line recommendation from Computer Knowledge would be to avoid this process if at all possible. 🙂

Where Do You Get DLL Files?

As mentioned above, all of the library files you need should have been provided by the programs that require them. In the rare instance that you need one and can’t find it on the Website of the program in question you might try…

DLL-Downloads.comWeb Link

Comments from Original Article:

Said this on 2009-12-03 At 11:34 pm
how dll competible for mor than one program at server side
Said this on 2009-12-03 At 11:54 pm
In reply to #2
A DLL file is simply a library collection of routines with defined entry points and parameters for the most part. It’s therefore quite possible to publish those interface standards for other programs to use and, if so, then that DLL file can easily work with other programs. A good programmer will register use of that DLL file so that Windows knows more than one program is using the file and will not erase it should the original program be uninstalled. If the DLL file is erased that can cause serious problems for the other program(s) using the DLL file.

gift chinenye
Said this on 2011-02-15 At 04:40 am
how can i register with you, and how i be able to learn through the use of computer.

[I have no registration for site updates unless you follow the Twitter feed as I generally use that to announce a new page if I remember. -DaBoss]

Said this on 2011-05-26 At 10:26 am
dear mam/sir i have window7 in my laptop and i want to register to ocx files i ask if i register to ocx files there is no problem for my windows 7 and my laptop? thanks

[Can’t personally say. –DaBoss]

Said this on 2011-10-10 At 06:36 am
Hi Experts
I have developed a activex control and registered on 64bit system. I have 64bit windows operating system and office 2010. When I install activeX using regsvr32.exe , it succesfully executed.
But the problem is when I try to use this activeX component in my application like in VBA7, it through an exception “Unspecified Error”. I am not getting what is going wrong with this.
I am added this component to my toolbox using choose component option. and while trying drag n drop this component it through a Exception .

Plz Help

Thanks in advanced
Said this on 2012-02-08 At 05:44 am
In reply to #7

I created an 64 bit ocx in vs2010 in Windows server 2008 OS. I am successfull to register this ocx properly..Then i created a windows application in vs2010. I want to use this OCX in application but the ocx is not visible in tab choose toolbox items->com component in tools menubar. So how can i use this OCX. Please reply ASAP.

Thanks in advance
Pooja Kamra

[This article is for general information and not specific to any given product or compiler or installer. Please see the Microsoft instructions for specific information. –DaBoss]

What are Emoticons?

Emoticons are ASCII glyphs originally designed to show an emotional state in plain text messages. Over time they have turned into an art form as well. In most cases, emoticons are constructed to be viewed by tilting your head left so the right side of the emoticon is at the bottom of the “picture.” These simple emoticons have, over time, merged with artwork produced as ASCII characters. This site does not catalog that. If interested, perform a Google search on the term “ASCII art” and you should find multiple sites that host such collections.

Stop Note: Some programs allow you to type in text and a graphic emoticon shows up. This does not apply here. The emoticons here are emoticons you type in. Nothing more. Please don’t ask how to “activate” them; there is nothing here to activate.

Near as any research can pinpoint, the emoticon was invented by Scott E. Fahlman on 19 September 1982 in a message posted on Carnegie Mellon University bulletin board systems. Fahlman is quoted as saying “I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers: 🙂 . Read it sideways. Actually, it is probably more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes, given current trends. For this, use :-(.” [For more on this story see Fahlman’s own pageWeb Link on the subject (with thanks to C.S. for the link).]

As you can see from the full list on this site (which is likely only a small percentage of the totality of emoticons) there are hundreds (thousands?) but only a very few are commonly used. Those are shown on this page. Most of the common ones involve some form of smile or frown giving emoticons the secondary name “smilies.”

Don’t overdo if you use emoticons. Over one in a paragraph and three in a message are a good indicator you are a “newbie.”

If not already shown that way, emoticons are best viewed using a monospaced font. Your browser should have the option for this if they don’t already show up that way.

Please note: The nature of the internet has always been an “anything goes” type of culture. A few of the emoticons in the collection are meant to be suggestive by design. You have to use your imagination, but be warned nevertheless. None of these emoticons were created by Computer Knowledge; they have only been collected from various other sources and cataloged here.

Common Emoticons

  •  🙂  Basic smiley face; used for humor and sometimes sarcasm
  •  🙁  Basic frowney face; used for sadness or anger
  •  😉  Half-smiley or winkey face; more often used for sarcasm
  •  :-/  Wry face; used for wry humor

Alphabetical (by Emoticon) List

CKnow used to display the full list on this page but have decided to stop here and make you click on another link if you wish to view the entire list of around 1,900 entries. If all you wanted to know was what emoticons are then you now have that information. If you need the entire list then it is in a text file linked here. Note: This list is not being actively maintained.

What Are Electronic Communication Acronyms?

To simplify text communications a number of acronyms have been developed. This page expands a collection of some you may encounter. Please note that shortcuts are frequently made up on the spot so there is no possibility of including every acronym you may encounter here. You may also see these in either lower or upper case. I’ve used upper case here for clarity. Also, most of the more rude have not been listed. Note: This list is not being actively maintained.

  • 4EVR = Forever
  • AAAAA = American Association Against Acronym Abuse
  • AATJ = And All That Jazz
  • ADR = Address
  • AFAIC = As Far As I’m Concerned
  • AFAIK = As Far As I Know
  • AFAYC = As Far As You’re Concerned
  • AFK = Away From Keyboard
  • AISI = As I See It
  • AKA = Also Known As
  • ALOL = Actually Laughing Out Loud
  • AML = All My Love
  • ANFSCD = And Now For Something Completely Different
  • ASAP = As Soon As Possible
  • ASL = Age/Sex/Location
  • ASLMH = Age/Sex/Location/Music/Hobbies
  • ASOASF = And So On And So Forth
  • ATM = At The Moment
  • AWOL = Absent Without Leave
  • B/C = Because
  • B4 = Before
  • BAK = Back At Keyboard
  • BBFN = Bye Bye For Now
  • BBL = Be Back Later
  • BBS = Be Back Soon
  • BBSL = Be Back Sooner or Later
  • BCNU = Be Seeing You
  • BCOZ = Because
  • BEOS = Nudge
  • BFN = Bye For Now
  • BKA = Better Known As
  • BRB = Be Right Back
  • BRT = Be Right There
  • BTW = By The Way
  • BUAYA = To Sweet Talk You
  • CFV = Call For Vote
  • CU = See You (good bye)
  • CUL = See You Later
  • CUL8ER = See You Later
  • CY = Calm Yourself
  • CYA = Cover Your A__
  • DH = Dear Hubby (Husband)
  • DL = Download
  • DMI = Don’t Mention It
  • DOD = We could tell you but then we’d have to kill you!
  • DUCT = Did You See That?
  • DYOFDW = Do Your Own F___ing Dirty Work
  • EG = Evil Grin
  • EL = Evil Laugh
  • F2F = Face to Face
  • FAQ = Frequently Asked Questions
  • FAQL = Frequently Asked Questions List
  • FAWC = For Anyone Who Cares
  • FFK = Fong Fei Kei = To Stand You Up
  • FOAF = Friend Of A Friend
  • FTASB = Faster Than A Speeding Bullet
  • FTF = Face To Face
  • FTL = Faster Than Light
  • FUBAR = F_____d Up Beyond All Recognition
  • FWIW = For What It’s Worth
  • FYA = For Your Amusement
  • FYI = For Your Information
  • GA = Go Ahead
  • GALGAL = Give A Little Get A Little
  • GBH = Great Big Hug
  • GD&R = Grinning, Ducking and Running (usually after snide remark)
  • GG = Good Game
  • GGN = Gotta Go Now
  • GL = Good Luck
  • GMTA = Great Minds Think Alike
  • GR8 = Great
  • HIH = Hope It Helps
  • HILIACACLO = Help I Lapsed Into A Coma And Can’t Log Off
  • HTH = Hope This Helps
  • HUGZ = Hugs
  • IAE = In Any Event
  • IANAL = I Am Not A Lawyer
  • IAT = I am Tired
  • IC = I See
  • ICBW = I Could Be Wrong
  • IDK = I Don’t Know
  • IGTP = I Get The Point
  • IHNO = I Have No Opinion
  • IHTFP = I Have Truly Found Paradise (I Hate This F_____n Place)
  • IIR = If I Recall
  • IIRC = If I Recall Correctly
  • IM = Instant Message
  • IMAO = In My Arrogant Opinion
  • IMHO = In My Humble Opinion
  • IMNSHO = In My Not-So-Humble Opinion
  • IMO = In My Opinion
  • INPO = In No Particular Order
  • IOW = In Other Words
  • IRL = In Real Life
  • IYKWIM = If You Know What I Mean
  • IYKWIMAITYD = If You Know What I Mean And I Think You Do
  • JK (or J/K) = Just Kidding
  • JM2C = Just My 2 Cents
  • JT = Just Teasing
  • K = Okay
  • KBD = Keyboard
  • KEWL = Cool
  • KOK = Knock
  • KOTC = Kiss On The Cheek
  • KOTL = Kiss On The Lips
  • L8R = Later
  • LMAO = Laughing My A__ Off
  • LOL = Laughing Out Loud
  • LOLA = Laugh Out Loud Again
  • LOOL = Laughing Outragously Out Loud
  • LTHFO = Laugh Til Head Falls Off (Sometimes seen as HAHAHATHUD)
  • LWR = Launch When Ready
  • LYLAS = Love You Like a Sister
  • MOMPL = One Moment Please
  • MOO = Multi-user Dungeon Object-Oriented
  • MOTAS = Member Of The Appropriate Sex
  • MOTOS = Member Of The Opposite Sex
  • MOTSS = Member Of The Same Sex
  • MSG = Message
  • MTBF = Mean Time Between Failure
  • MTFBWY = May The Force Be With You
  • MUAK = Smooch
  • MUD = Multiple User Dungeon
  • MUSH = Multi User Shared Hallucination
  • N/A = Not Acceptable
  • N1 = Nice One
  • NDA = Non-Disclosure Agreement
  • NM = Nevermind
  • NP = No Problem
  • NRN = No Reply Necessary
  • NTK = Nice To Know
  • OB- = Obligatory (as a prefix)
  • OBJOKE = Obligatory Joke
  • OIC = Oh, I See!
  • OK = All Correct (I Approve)
  • OMG = Oh My God
  • ONNA = Oh No, Not Again
  • ONNTA = Oh No, Not This Again
  • OOI = Out Of Interest
  • OS = Operating System
  • OSLT = Or Something Like That
  • OTOH = On The Other Hand
  • OTOOH = On The Other Other Hand
  • OUSU = Oh, You Shut Up
  • PD = Public Domain
  • PDA = Public Display of Affection
  • PIAK = Slap In The Face
  • PITA = Pain In The A__
  • PLS = Please
  • PM = Personal Message
  • PMFJI = Pardon Me For Jumping In
  • PMIGBOM = Put Mind In Gear Before Opening Mouth
  • PMJI = Pardon My Jumping In
  • POV = Point of View
  • PPL = People
  • PS = Post Script
  • QL = Quit Laughing!
  • QS = Quit Scrolling
  • QT = Cutie
  • RBAY = Right Back At Ya
  • RE = Regards or Hello Again
  • RFC = Request For Comments
  • RFD = Request For Discussion
  • RFI = Request For Information
  • RIT = Alrighty
  • RL = Real Life
  • ROFL = Rolling On Floor Laughing
  • ROFLASTC = Rolling On Floor Laughing And Scaring The Cat
  • ROFLGO = Rolling On Floor Laughing Guts Out
  • ROFLMAO = Rolling On Floor Laughing My A__ Off!
  • ROFLOL = Rolling On Floor Laughing Out Loud
  • ROTFL = Rolling On The Floor Laughing
  • ROTFLABIC = Rolling On The Floor Laughing And Biting Into Carpet
  • ROTFLOL = Rolling On The Floor Laughing Out Loud
  • RTFAQ = Read The FAQ
  • RTFM = Read The F___ing Manual
  • RX = Regards (Regs)
  • SCNR = Sorry Couldn’t Resist
  • SED = Said Enough Darling
  • SF = Science Fiction
  • SFETE = Smiling From Ear To Ear
  • SMAIM = Send Me An Instant Message
  • SME = Subject Matter Expert
  • SNAFU = Situation Normal, All F___ed Up
  • SNAILMAIL = Postal Mail Service
  • SO = Significant Other (e.g., spouse, boy/girlfriend)
  • SOHF = Sense Of Humor Failure
  • SPAM = Stupid Persons’ Advertisement
  • SSEWBA = Someday Soon, Everything Will Be Acronyms
  • SU = Shut Up
  • SWAG = Scientific Wild A__ Guess
  • SWALK = Sealed With A Loving Kiss
  • TAS = Taking A Shower
  • TFDS = That’s For Darn Sure
  • THANX = Thanks
  • THX = Thanks
  • TIA = Thanks In Advance
  • TIC = Tongue In Cheek
  • TNC = Tongue In Cheek
  • TNX = Thanks
  • TPTB = The Powers That Be
  • TSR = Terminal and Stay Resindent
  • TTFN = Ta Ta For Now
  • TTYL = Talk To You Later
  • TVM = Thanks Very Much
  • TWIMC = To Whom It May Concern
  • TY = Thank You
  • TYVM = Thank You Very Much
  • U = You
  • U2 = You Too?
  • UR = Your
  • VBG = Very Big Grin
  • VBS = Very Big Smile
  • VEG = Very Evil Grin
  • VSF = Very Sad Face
  • W/ = With
  • W/B = Write Back
  • W/O = without
  • WAD = Without A Doubt
  • WB = Welcome Back
  • WBS = Write Back Soon
  • WEG = Wicked Evil Grin
  • WISP = Winning Is So Pleasureable
  • WNOHGB = Were No One Has Gone Before
  • WRT = With Respect To
  • WT = Without Thinking
  • WTG = Way To Go
  • WTH = What The Heck
  • WTTM = Without Thinking To Much
  • WYSIWYG = What You See Is What You Get
  • WYWH = Wish You Were Here
  • XM = Excuse Me
  • XME = Excuuuuse Me
  • XO = Hugs, Kisses
  • Y = Why
  • YMMV = Your Mileage May Vary
  • YTTDSFATCCSH = Yours Till The Desert Sands Freeze And The Camels Come Skating Home
  • YW = You’re Welcome
  • YWIA = You’re Welcome In Advance
  • ZZZ = Sleeping, Bored, Tired

What Was That Error?

You’re happily working along with your computer and suddenly the screen flashes, the computer or application stops, an error message flashes on the screen, and everything comes to a screeching halt and/or your system restarts. But, what was that error?

After the system restarts you may be able to find out by looking in the system Event Log.

Not many people know that events like the above are often captured by the system just before it goes into never-never land. Not only that, but there is an event log viewer located in the Administrative Tools section of the Control Panel…

Event Viewer

Open the Control Panel from the Start Menu. Open the Administrative Tools. There you should see an applet called Event Viewer. Double click on it and it opens to show a number of different event categories (this procedure is the same in Windows XP and Vista). In the left panel pick the category most likely to contain the particular error you encountered. The right panel should then show the recorded events in that category with the latest events at the top of the list.

Note that not all of the events listed are going to be errors; indeed, most will not be. A fair number of different events get recorded by Windows all the time.

When you find an event or error you think is the one you are looking for double click on that entry in the log. An Event Properties dialog box should open and show you the details relating the the event or error.

To be honest there is a good chance you will not understand what you are seeing in the error details (and Computer Knowledge can’t catalog every possible error or event out there!). However, often you can determine the specific program that failed and/or the module that program was using. Sometimes there will be a link in the error message. If you click on the link you will be sending the associated information to Microsoft. A dialog should ask you if you want to do that. If you click on the No button the material won’t be sent however your system may (this does not happen with all systems) open a Help window with some specifics about the particular event/error and maybe even a link to Microsoft Knowledgebase articles relating to that event/error.

Hopefully, with this information, you can come to some resolution of whatever problem you had or are having.


HIBERFIL.SYS AND PAGEFILE.SYS are system-generated files. They are used by Windows for hibernation and virtual memory control.


HIBERFIL.SYS is a file the system creates when the computer goes into hibernation mode. Windows uses the file when it is turned back on. If you don’t need hibernation mode and want to delete the file you need to turn the hibernation option off before Windows will allow you to delete the file. The procedure for turning hibernation off differs markedly between Windows XP and Vista. The file size depends largely on the size of active RAM in the computer as the contents of the file are basically a RAM image.

  • Windows XP

  • Procedure for Windows XP. This procedure makes use of the graphical user interface.
    • Start | Control Panel | Power Options
    • Go to the Hibernate Tab.
    • Uncheck the Enable Hibernation box if you don’t need the hibernation function.
    • The file should now be able to be deleted.
  • How to Troubleshoot Hibernation and Standby Problems in Windows XP. See this Microsoft Knowledgebase article.
  • Windows Vista and Windows 7

  • Procedure for Windows Vista and Windows 7. This procedure requires that you be an administrator and uses the command line.
    • Start | All Programs | Accessories
    • Right click on the Command Prompt entry and choose Run as Administrator from the context menu that pops up (OK any UAC queries about doing this).
    • A Command Prompt window should open.
    • At the command prompt (where the flashing cursor is) type powercfg.exe /hibernate off and press the Enter key.
    • The box should flash and you’ll be back at the Command Prompt; type exit and press the Enter key to exit the Command Prompt mode.
    • Hibernation should now be turned off and the file HIBERFILE.SYS deleted. If you want to turn it back on repeat the procedure and use /hibernate on instead.
    • More Information: Microsoft Support documentWeb Link. A method of doing this using the graphical user interface is available using the Disk Cleanup Wizard. See the writeup hereWeb Link for that if you absolutely refuse to use the command prompt.
  • How to Troubleshoot Hibernation and Standby Problems in Windows Vista. See this Microsoft Knowledgebase article.


PAGEFILE.SYS is the virtual memory file Windows uses. Typically, on install, Windows sets the size of the file at around 1.5 times your physical memory size however this size will vary depending on the amount of free space on the disk when the file is established and other factors. Most will find the default size works fine but it can be changed. Windows uses this file for its normal operation however if you really need the space you can delete it after turning the virtual memory option off but be aware that this can cause extreme instability in Windows to the point where it might stop so do this at your own risk

  • Windows XP

  • Procedure for Windows XP.
    • Start | Right Click on My Computer | Select Properties from the menu
    • Select the Advanced Tab
    • Select Performance Settings
    • Select the Advanced Tab
    • Under virtual memory use the Change button to either set the size you want or turn it completely off. Note that if you turn it off or make the value too small you may notice a system slowdown or Windows may stop. Windows wants to use this file and if it’s set to zero then in addition to a slowdown while running, on system shutdown you may think Windows has hung due to the extra time involved. You may have to experiment a bit if you set it lower than some minimum. The best advice would be to leave the file alone. The Elder GeekWeb Link has a tutorial on the paging file that describes how to change its size in more detail.
  • Windows Vista and Windows 7

  • Procedure for Windows Vista and Windows 7. You must be an administrator to make these changes.
    • Start | Right Click on Computer | Select Properties from the menu
    • Select Advanced System Settings from the left menu.
    • Under Performance click on Settings
    • On the Advanced tab you’ll find the Virtual Memory area. Select the Change button to either set the size you want or turn it completely off. Note that if you turn it off or make the value too small you may notice a system slowdown or Windows may stop. Windows wants to use this file and if it’s set to zero then in addition to a slowdown while running, on system shutdown you may think Windows has hung due to the extra time involved. You may have to experiment a bit if you set it lower than some minimum. The best advice would be to leave the file alone. See the Elder Geek link above for a general discussion of virtual memory and its interaction with Windows.

Comments from the original 5/26/09 posting:

Said this on 2009-08-31 At 09:03 am
Thanks very much for a simple and easy to understand explanation and method…I was wondering about those massive files and now I know I can get rid of hiberfil and not pagefile!!!

Mayson Arnagiri
Said this on 2009-10-06 At 07:33 am
Good Day
The above was done on a Lenovo X61s laptop. Once completed, I tried enabling the hibernation feature when logged as admin.
Once clicking “apply” the tick is dlt of the checkbox.
Can this be a virus infection on the *.sys file?
Might be that a virus linked up with the HIBERFIL.SYS or the PAGEFILE.SYS
Hows about an answer for this.
Said this on 2009-10-06 At 11:04 am
In reply to #5
A virus sounds unlikely but I assume you’ve used anti-virus software to do a scan. Does your admin account require a password to log on? If not that could be the problem. Windows restricts ALL accounts with no password in what the user can do. Also, there is the possibility that you don’t have enough disk space to recreate the hibernate file.
Mayson Arnagiri
Said this on 2009-10-06 At 11:17 pm
Thank you
McAfee was run on machine, nothing was detected
There is enough storage space on the machine due to it having 160 GB Hrd drve.
Can i then delete the hiberfile?
When running on SAFE mode, windows doesnt enable hibernation feature. I thought it was the power manager driver that was at fault, highly unlikely.
In a task, logged with any profile: ticking the “enable hibernation” and then “apply”, this automatically unticks the box again.
This is a tricky one, as its the first of its kind for me.
Said this on 2009-10-06 At 11:27 pm
In reply to #7
As I recall, in SAFE mode Windows has no hibernate mode and so from SAFE mode you should not be able to do anything to it via the graphical interface. I’m not certain what else to suggest so I’ll take the easy way out and refer you to Microsoft. They have an article about troubleshooting hibernation here: (you’ll have to copy/paste as I don’t allow links in the comments). Good luck.

Said this on 2009-11-01 At 01:40 am
The problem with PAGEFILE.SYS on Vista is – even if paging is turned off at all Vista still locking that file and left it without changes. Quite stupid Vista functionality as for me.
And quite stupid that Vista still wants a HUGE pagefile on 4Gb memory.
Thus, seems the only solution is to boot computer from other OS (or from recovery CD) and delete that file manually. 🙁
Said this on 2009-11-01 At 01:28 pm
In reply to #11
If you insist on deleting the file (you really should let Windows have its paging capability) you can try Unlocker to unlock the file in order to delete it…
Said this on 2009-11-01 At 03:59 pm
Could anybody recommend article explaining – WHY(?!) Windows Vista wants pagefile having size equal or greater than size of RAM?! Othewise (if pagefile is smaller) it hanging for 30-40 sec every 2-3 min! :-(((

I can agree with it if RAM size is less than 1-2Gb but I have 4Gb RAM – I belive that must be enough for stable OS work without the huge pagefile!
Perhaps also can agree if there are “heavy” applications running. But it is not the case – there were only Windows Explorer + Outlook + Borland Delphi 7 – nothing also! That has very low memory consumption.

I have tested pagefile size = 200Mb, 512Mb, 1024Mb, 1536Mb – all variants works unstable, computer constantly hanging! :-\

Crazy stuff! I have 4Gb of RAM and that stupid OS cannot work with pagefiles smaller than 3.2Gb! What the ….? Does everybody knows the reason?
Note: question is not to the 3.2Gb size, but – why it wants SUCH BIG pagefile?
Said this on 2009-11-01 At 06:56 pm
In reply to #13
Assuming 32-bit Vista, the OS itself will only use and be capable of addressing about 3.5GB of the 4 you have. The rest may be used for drivers and the like but is not available for general use by the operating system (why most Windows 7 installs are recommended as 64-bit; although that creates a set of problems all its own). Creating a page file at least the same size as memory (if not more) is fairly standard with XP and Vista. Not having one is known to create memory holes as programs bring things into and out of memory for their operation and eventually these holes cause more general problems unless they are managed. The page file system is designed to help with this management.

Why your particular system with those things running slows so much I would consider a mystery as I’m not familiar with the needs of the programs. Perhaps the compiler uses quite a bit and Outlook has never been known to be nice. 🙂

One way to speed up operation with a page file is to put the page file on a different drive than the boot drive so the operating system and page file operation are not competing for the same drive controller and the drive itself therefore does not work as hard. (The Elder Geek article referenced above has details on that.)

Said this on 2010-01-28 At 02:47 pm
This was very informative, TY I looked and saw my HD was almost used up on my laptop. 15gb left of 69.6. This is not possible. i do not have any sw added and very small files. I clicked on c and saw pagefil and hiberfil were big. so i followed the hiberfil delete instructions..ty. But, it now says 17gb left of 69…what is taking up my harddrive. how can i fing out. i deleted programs …again minnute is size. windows vista home premium acer laptop 32 bit ram. ty for help
Said this on 2010-01-28 At 09:44 pm
In reply to #18
Hard to say without looking at the whole disk directory in sorted order but if you have lots and lots of small files keep in mind that each file will take up however many full sectors needed even if the last one of those is almost empty. If the sector size allocated by the FORMAT command is large then each small file will take up that large size even if it’s only a single byte in physical size.

If you have lots of files you don’t use very often consider zipping them together into a ZIP archive that Windows will handle like a folder. That way they are all in a single file with much less wasted space and when needed individual files can be pulled out of the archive, modified, and inserted back into it by dragging and dropping in Windows or by using a ZIP archive program of some sort.

[Added: For file size finding software see:]
Said this on 2010-06-02 At 04:55 pm
In reply to #18
One hidden culprit that uses up disk space is system restore. While it is a useful program and can really help out, it needs to be cleaned up periodically. When doing a disk clean up, be sure to check the other options, one of which is deleting all but the most recent system restore points. If you’ve been running your computer for quite a while, these file stack up and can take an amazing amount of disck space. The total space allowed can also be set by clicking on “My Computer”, going to the sytem restore tab and set a limit from there.

tanuj kumar
Said this on 2010-10-20 At 01:59 pm
tell any software to delect hiberfil.sys and pagefile.sys

[Assume you mean delete and that would be a BAD idea because of the caveats noted in the article. –DaBoss]

Said this on 2011-10-05 At 06:14 am
Thanks , i was trying to delete’em in Linux and i was thinking that they some kind of virus. and i just got into many problems by this.

Said this on 2012-01-18 At 12:50 am
This is just lame. The file does’t get deleted…you get it right back as soon as you turn hibernate on…
How do we actually delete this dump file is the real question.
Any ideas?

[If hibernation is ON then the file will be there because it contains all the information needed to hibernate the computer. If you want the file gone then turn hibernation OFF. You can’t have it both ways. –DaBoss]

What is a File Named Tilde (~) on the Desktop?

A file named with the single tilde character (~) appears on your desktop. What is it and why is it there?

This file started appearing on people’s desktop after the April 2003, Cumulative Patch for Outlook Express (330994) update released by Microsoft. If that update is installed and you take any action that changes the Windows Address Book the tilde file will appear on your desktop.

You could, in the past, find out more about the update itself from the Microsoft page…

…but that link no longer works.

When you change the Address Book, what should happen is that a backup called YOURNAME.WA~ would be created in the directory C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book. This is a backup to the Address Book named YOURNAME.WAB in that same directory. With the update installed, however, the backup does not get installed into the correct directory and the name gets shortened to just the ending tilde (~) character. This file appears on your Desktop instead of where it should appear.

You have four options to “fix” this:

  • Uninstall the patch. If you do this you may open your computer to the security problems that the patch fixes. And, Windows Update will notice that the patch is not present and, depending on how you have Windows Update configured, may reinstall it automatically or ask you to allow it to reinstall it. You will have to tell Windows Update “no” if you don’t want to continue having the tilde file on your Desktop.
  • Leave the patch installed and simply delete the tilde (~) file every time it appears. If you do this the consequence will be that you don’t have a current backup of your Windows Address Book. Having this backup may or may not be important to you.
  • Leave the patch installed and move/rename the tilde (~) file every time it appears. While this would be the safest option it is also the one that requires the most work. You will have to rename the tilde (~) file to YOURNAME.WA~ (substitute your login name for YOURNAME) and then move the file to the C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book directory and have it overwrite the file of the same name there.
  • Change the startup directory so the file appears elsewhere. If you right click on the Outlook Express shortcut and choose Properties from the menu you will be presented with a dialog box. One of the entries in the dialog will be “Start In:”. Change that entry to read: C:\Program Files\Outlook Express\ and the tilde file should then be created in that directory instead of on the desktop. You should also change the shortcut in the Start|Programs menu the same way so the tilde files won’t be produced there either. This won’t solve the problem, of course, but it puts the file where you don’t have to be bothered by it and, since you know where it is, can recover it if need be. [Note: This file may be marked read-only. If so, uncheck the read-only box, make the change, click on Apply, and then recheck the read-only box.] (Thanks to a user for a pointer to this tip and another for the read-only part.)

Microsoft is supposed to be aware of the problem and will likely eventually fix it (perhaps in a new version of the program instead of an update).

If you’re not certain, rename the file to TEST.WAB and move it to the indicated directory above. Then double click it and see if the Address Book applet in Windows starts and shows your address book.

Thanks to user Mouse on the FILExt forum for research performed to help answer this question.

Why Aren’t Different Display Colors the Same in Different Monitors?

Often computer users complain that images viewed on one computer do not look the same when viewed on another. Sometimes the images are better; often worse. This page attempts to address that topic.

(A short discussion of color and how it is displayed on a computer monitor is at the end of this tutorial. Click here if you need to review that first.)

Here is the short list of factors that typically cause color display problems:

  • Viewing environment
  • Monitor settings
  • Nonlinear human vision
  • Gamma correction
  • Color coding

Viewing environment

The environment a monitor sits in can have a profound effect on the ability to view color images with their proper colors. If you have reflections on the screen or a room that has an ambient brightness different from the room in which the image was created then that image will look different; sometimes greatly so. As one example, an image developed in a dimly-lighted room and shown in a bright room will appear contrasty to the viewer. If the room is bright, the image may appear washed out.

If an image looks “different” the first things to research are the ambient conditions under which that image was developed. This may give you a clue as to how to make the environment better for viewing that image.

Monitor Settings

Color display is very sensitive to how your monitor’s controls are set. If not set properly the full range of colors in a digital image may not show properly. As an example, if the brightness control is improperly set some shades of black may combine and shading will be lost in an image.

To set your monitor (this assumes a CRT), drop out of Windows to the DOS command prompt. The screen should be all dark except for the prompt. Turn the brightness control all the way down and then adjust it upward until the monitor just starts to lighten up. Back the control down until the screen turns dark again. Once set, don’t move that control further. Now, display a representative picture and adjust the contrast to accurately display the image (strangely, when doing this you will notice the “contrast” control really affecting the “brightness” of the image). Note: On some monitors the brightness control may be called “Black Level” and the contrast control may be called “Picture.” (Some monitors may appear more contrasty than others due to a black coating on the mask the electron beam passes through.)

Nonlinear Human Vision

One problem with display of color is that human vision does not respond in a linear manner to changes in brightness. You may have seen professional photographers holding up a gray card to determine exposure. The gray card is 18% luminance but is perceived by human vision as about half brightness. Computer and display systems have to take this intensity nonlinearity into consideration. Not all do it correctly or well.

CRTs also have their own nonlinearities which are a function of the generation of the electron beam in the monitor (near saturation, phosphors may also have some effect). These corrections involve the next concept: gamma correction.

Gamma Correction

Intensity of light on a monitor’s screen is nonlinear relative to the applied voltage to generate that intensity (intensity is roughly applied voltage raised to some power). The exact power number is typically given the name gamma. If you have an image consisting of linear-light intensities then some compensation must be made for that image or it will appear murky in the mid-tones. On the other hand, if the image has had gamma correction and you apply another gamma correction to it then the image midtones will be too light. (Note: Images generated by a camera typically have gamma correction applied to them by the camera. Images generated by other means may not.)

Ideally, when you create an image you should make whatever corrections are necessary to take out the effects of your ambient conditions. This will allow the viewer of the image to always apply a transform suitable to their ambient conditions and thus correctly view the image. In practice this ideal is rarely achieved and so images can vary from system to system.

Color Coding

It’s possible to have virtually an infinite color spectrum on a monitor due to its analog nature; it’s just not possible for the computer to feed that many colors to the monitor. Let’s take the transition between black and white to examine this.

The ratio of intensity between brightest white and darkest black is called the contrast ratio and it changes for each environment. Projected film has a ratio of around 80:1 but typical office conditions limit the ratio of most monitors to around 5:1.

Human vision, on the other hand, can detect small differences in intensity. Changes on the order of 0.1% of the range between black and white can be detected. If we code each of these differences assuming linear intensity some 9,900 codes (or 14 bits) would be required per level.

But, as we’ve seen, nothing is linear. If the coding roughly follows the required nonlinearities (small changes where human vision can detect small changes and larger changes where human vision only detects larger changes) then some 460 codes (about nine bits) per increment would be needed. From a practical standpoint, the computer uses eight bits. When nonlinearly coded this yields an image sufficient for broadcast-quality digital television.

To quote from the colorspace FAQWeb Link:

Desktop computers are optimized neither for image synthesis nor for video. They have programmable “gamma” and either poor standards or no standards. Consequently, image interchange among desktop computers is fraught with difficulty.

A Special Case: The Computer’s Color Compromise

Extending the logic above for black to white, consider a model where each primary color uses eight bits to define it. Then, using 24 bits, 16,777,216 individual colors can be represented digitally. This 24-bit model is currently the standard most current computer graphics are held to when simulating true colors as seen in nature.

Some computers, however, compromise by using a 256-color mode of operation. In this mode the compromise involves using a palette to hold the colors currently in use. Each entry in the palette contains the full 24-bit representation of that color (plus information the system needs). So long as an image can be fully represented by any 256 colors of the 16 million available the palette method works very well. And, using the palette greatly reduces the amount of memory and processing needed to display the image to the screen. (Note: With advances in CPU and graphics processor technology working in full 24-bit mode has become easier so more and more systems do not need this compromise.)

The problem with the palette compromise is that it is a compromise. If any single image requires more than 256 colors then some grouping of the closest colors must be made and all of these assigned to some intermediate color that exists in the palette. Also, since each image can carry its own palette, if more than one image is shown on the screen there may be a total of more than 256 individual colors represented and so the computer must impose further compromises and combinations.

When dealing with multiple images you can sometimes watch these compromises happening as various images become active on the screen. The remaining images on the screen may color shift as the active palette changes. It’s much worse if images with more than 16 colors are viewed on a 16 color display.

The bottom line is that when color display of an image is involved, you should expect viewing differences instead of expecting consistent images from computer to computer. Different is the norm, not the exception.

What Is Color?

As a refresher, let’s briefly discuss color itself. We’ll use the computer’s color monitor as the basis for this discussion.

First, would you believe that all those colors you see on your computer’s monitor are really only combinations of just three? Believe it, it’s true. The monitor uses a color scheme known as additive color. The three primary colors in this system are red, green, and blue; often just referred to as RGB. Color on a monitor is obtained by illuminating phosphors that glow in the proper primary color combinations when hit by an electron beam. The electron beam scans the face of the monitor through a mask which directs the beam to specific phosphors (the phosphors are laid out in either dot groups known as triads or side-by-side thin lines). To the eye, each triad (or line trio) appears as a single dot. The term additive is used because where no beam falls there is black and where all colors are lit together there is white. Where two colors overlap various intermediate colors are created. The figure below shows this relationship.

Color Overlap

Different beam intensities vary the color intensity which translates to more color varieties. Each pixel in the display is defined by a specific digital code that defines the intensity of each primary color that has to be applied to the triad or line trio representing that pixel (pixels and triads are usually not a one-to-one match on the screen leading to further compromise).